Efficiency parameters to increase the performance of agrochemicals

Cuticular uptake
One of the most important ways to improve the efficacy of pesticides and minimize their impact on off-target organisms is through increasing the penetration of active ingredients into plant foliage. Foliar uptake of pesticides is a complex process, depending on leaf surface characters of plants, physicochemical properties of the chemicals, types and concentration of the additives, and environmental conditions.
The fundamental mechanism of uptake has been considered, with most attention given to the epicuticular lipids and their role in modifying active ingredient diffusion through cuticles (Kirkwood 1999; Riederer and Marksta¨dter 1996; Scho¨nherr et al. 1999). However, there is a much simpler effect on the leaf surface that needs to be considered first. If a spray formulation contains adjuvants that cause droplet spread on a leaf surface, this will in effect lower the mass of active per unit area without any change in concentration until the spray solution begins to evaporate. In any case, there will be a ‘‘solution residue’’ where the concentration of the active is many times more than in the starting spray solution (Zabkiewicz 2003).

Translocation
Adjuvants are known to facilitate cuticular ‘‘transport’’ (foliar uptake) but are not thought to play any significant part in further short- or long-distance translocation processes. However, in theory, if adjuvants could reach the cellular plasmalemma, then they could affect the initial stage of the sub-cuticular transport process. The recent use of mass or molar relationships, instead of percentages, for xenobiotic uptake into plants from differing formulations, may be a means of elucidating some of the interactions among actives, adjuvants and plants (Forster et al. 2004).

PGR: Abscisic acid (ABA)

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone. ABA functions in many plant developmental processes, including seed and bud dormancy, the control of organ size and stomatal closure.

It is especially important for plants in the response to environmental stresses, including drought, soil salinity, cold tolerance, freezing tolerance, heat stress and heavy metal ion tolerance.

Functions
ABA was originally believed to be involved in abscission, which is how it received its name. This is now known to be the case only in a small number of plants. ABA-mediated signaling also plays an important part in plant responses to environmental stress and plant pathogens. The plant genes for ABA biosynthesis and sequence of the pathway have been elucidated. ABA is also produced by some plant pathogenic fungi via a biosynthetic route different from ABA biosynthesis in plants.

In preparation for winter, ABA is produced in terminal buds. This slows plant growth and directs leaf primordia to develop scales to protect the dormant buds during the cold season. ABA also inhibits the division of cells in the vascular cambium, adjusting to cold conditions in the winter by suspending primary and secondary growth.

Abscisic acid is also produced in the roots in response to decreased soil water potential (which is associated with dry soil) and other situations in which the plant may be under stress. ABA then translocates to the leaves, where it rapidly alters the osmotic potential of stomatal guard cells, causing them to shrink and stomata to close. The ABA-induced stomatal closure reduces transpiration (evaporation of water out of the stomata), thus preventing further water loss from the leaves in times of low water availability. A close linear correlation was found between the ABA content of the leaves and their conductance (stomatal resistance) on a leaf area basis.

Seed germination is inhibited by ABA in antagonism with gibberellin. ABA also prevents loss of seed dormancy.

Several ABA-mutant Arabidopsis thaliana plants have been identified and are available from the Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre – both those deficient in ABA production and those with altered sensitivity to its action. Plants that are hypersensitive or insensitive to ABA show phenotypes in seed dormancy, germination, stomatal regulation, and some mutants show stunted growth and brown/yellow leaves. These mutants reflect the importance of ABA in seed germination and early embryo development.

Pyrabactin (a pyridyl containing ABA activator) is a naphthalene sulfonamide hypocotyl cell expansion inhibitor, which is an agonist of the seed ABA signaling pathway. It is the first agonist of the ABA pathway that is not structurally related to ABA.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and its secretions have significant antagonistic effects on various pathogenic bacteria that cause root rot of fruits and vegetables, and can effectively prevent and control root rot of fruits and vegetables.

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and its secretions have significant antagonistic effects on various pathogenic bacteria that cause root rot of fruits and vegetables, and can effectively prevent and control root rot of fruits and vegetables.


Soak the fruit and vegetable seedlings in the bacterial solution prepared by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens with a concentration of 0.5 × 109 ~ 1.5 × 109 cfu/mL for 5 ~ 15 minutes before planting, and at the same time 18 ~ 22 days after planting the fruit and vegetable seedlings with a concentration of 0.5 × 109~1.5×109cfu/mL of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by irrigating the roots once, and the dosage of 8~12L/hm2 was appropriate.

The field control effect test results showed that the control effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on cucumber root rot was 56.29%, the control effect on tomato root rot was 66.75%, and the control effect on strawberry root rot was 74.17%.

The effect is remarkable.

LIN-MA : Metarhizium anisopliae

  • WHAT’S lin-ma?

    Lin-MA (METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE) The active ingredient of the product is an insecticidal fungi-metarhizium anisopliae. Selected from among over 1,000 strains, the strain attains much broader spectrum, better stability and compatibility, it is a newgeneration of more efficient fungal pesticide. It can infest most species of insect pests and friendly to dragonflies and other natural enemies.

    INSECTICIDAL MECHANISM OF LIN-MA

    The effective component of Metarhizium is conidium. Conidia adhere to the pest, then the hyphae invade and grow rapidly in the pest body, invading various tissue through blood and lymph circulation.

    Toxins are secreted, effecting the pest’s central nervous system and destroying the integrity of the cell structure. Consequently, the pest will die because of tissue dehydration.

    The hyphae in dead pests can extend out of the body and produce conidia. Conidia continue to infect other insects through contact infection or wind diffusion, causing repeated infections in pest population.

    In general, when some of the pests are infected, more and more their family members and friends will be easily brought under control.
    Main formulations:

    2×10 8 spores/g GR

    8×10 9 spores/g WP

    8×10 9 spores/ml OD

Source: Metarhizium anisopliae on Strikingly