Applications of γ-PGA in agriculture

Application of γ-PGA in seed dressing application:

For wheat, corn, rice and other field crops, γ-PGA can be used as a seed dressing agent, generally diluted 5-10 times, mixed with seeds and sown, which can improve the germination rate and survival rate of seeds.

For the economical effect of fruits and vegetables, it can be used as a nutrient solution for seedlings, which can be applied on roots or sprayed on seedbeds or seedling trays, which can promote the growth and development of seedling roots, improve the resistance of seedlings, and ensure that the seedlings grow robustly.

Nematicidal activity of tea saponin

Nematicidal activity of theaceae plant extract: Ethanol extracts of oil-tea cake and other 8 plant materials had been prepared. Indoor experiments were carried on to test its nematicidal activity in vitro against Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile 2 (J2).

The results showed, totally 5 plant extracts, including extracts of oil-tea seed, tea seed, oil-tea cake, tea saponin extracts (65%), refined-saponin, reached medium-strong nematicidal activity.

Tea Saponin

An integrated view of plant–pathogen interactions

Plants are engaged in a continuous co-evolutionary struggle for dominance with their pathogens. The outcomes of these interactions are of particular importance to human activities, as they can have dramatic effects on agricultural systems.

The recent convergence of molecular studies of plant immunity and pathogen infection strategies is revealing an integrated picture of the plant–pathogen interaction from the perspective of both organisms.

Plants have an amazing capacity to recognize pathogens through strategies involving both conserved and variable pathogen elicitors, and pathogens manipulate the defence response through secretion of virulence effector molecules. These insights suggest novel biotechnological approaches to crop protection.

–Plant immunity depends on cell-autonomous events that are related to animal innate immunity, but plants have a greatly expanded recognition repertoire to compensate for their lack of an adaptive immune system. Ongoing research is revealing the recognition capacity of the plant immune system and concurrent studies on pathogen biology are beginning to unravel how these organisms manipulate host immunity to cause disease.

–Plants have evolved two strategies to detect pathogens. On the external face of the host cell, conserved microbial elicitors called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognized by receptor proteins called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs); stimulation of PRRs leads to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The second class of perception involves recognition by intracellular receptors of pathogen virulence molecules called effectors; this recognition induces effector-triggered immunity (ETI).

–PTI is generally effective against non-adapted pathogens in a phenomenon called non-host resistance, whereas ETI is active against adapted pathogens. However, these relationships are not exclusive and depend on the elicitor molecules present in each infection.

–Successful pathogens are able to suppress PTI responses and thereby multiply and cause disease. They achieve suppression through the deployment of ‘effector’ proteins. Plant receptor proteins can recognize pathogen effectors either by direct physical association or indirectly through an accessory protein.

–Our understanding of effector proteins and their host targets is at an early stage. Sophisticated biochemical screens for host protein targets that interact with the diverse suites of pathogen effectors is likely to lead to the identification of important components of host defence mechanisms, and teach us more about host immune pathways and pathogenicity strategies.

–It is crucially important for the deployment of existing and novel resistance genes in agriculture that we advance our knowledge of plant–pathogen molecular co-evolution.

By Peter N. Dodds & John P. Rathjen

Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant–pathogen interactions

Plant immunity

Plants resist attacks by pathogens via innate immune responses, which are initiated by cell surface-localized pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and intracellular nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing receptors (NLRs) leading to pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), respectively.

Although the two classes of immune receptors involve different activation mechanisms and appear to require different early signalling components, PTI and ETI eventually converge into many similar downstream responses, albeit with distinct amplitudes and dynamics.

Increasing evidence suggests the existence of intricate interactions between PRR-mediated and NLR-mediated signalling cascades as well as common signalling components shared by both.

Effect of γ-PGA on the yield and quality of potted Brassica chinensis

An effect of a fortified fertilizer by γ-PGA on the yield and quality of potted Brassica chinensis was studied by XU Zongqi etc..

The results showed that the contents of chlorophyll,above ground fresh weight,nitrate,vitamin C and ammonium nitrogen with γ-PGA treatment had remarkable differences compared with the control. Under normal fertilization,the treatment with 50 mg /kg of γ-PGA led to significant increasing of chlorophyll under ground fresh weight compared with the control.

In particular,the production of above ground fresh weight was increased by 8. 8% . The efficiency of ammonium nitrogen
and nitrogen was improved by 10. 6% . The nitrate content decreased by 44. 8% and the content of Vc increased by 18. 1%,by using 100 mg /kg of γ-PGA

When nitrogen fertilizer reduced by 15% ,the treatment of 20 mg /kg of γ-PGA improved the nitrogen use efficiency by 10. 2% - 11. 6% .

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γ-PGA