TOMATO YELLOW LEAF CURL VIRUS

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) causes one of the most devastating emerging diseases of tomato worldwide (Czosnek, 2007). The virus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) is transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. From the early 1960s, TYLCV has quickly spread from the Eastern Mediterranean Basin to the entire Middle East, CentralAsia, North and West Africa, southeastern Europe, the Caribbean islands, southeastern USA, Mexico,the Southern Indian Ocean islands and Japan (Lefeuvre et al.,2010).In severely affected regions, crops may be totally lost (Picó et al., 1996).The tremendous economic impact of TYLCV and the swift spread of TYLCV disease worldwide have triggered a large body of research tackling many aspects of the viral disease over the last 30 years: molecular biology, plant–virus–vector relationship, epidemiology, disease management and breeding for resistance.

The rapid spread of the viral disease is caused by whitefly pressure and by high transmission efficacy. A single whitefly is able to inoculate a plant following a 15-min acquisition period and a 15-min inoculation period. In the field, inoculation can occur immediately after transplantation. Infected seedlings will remain stunted and will not yield fruits. Apart from whiteflies,TYLCV can be transmitted by grafting, by agroinoculation and by DNA-coated particle bombardment. It is not seed transmitted. The relationships between begomoviruses and whiteflies are complex. TYLCV is transmitted by B. tabaci in a circulative manner.

TYLCV and some related viruses influence several features of insect pathogens: they affect B. tabaci longevity and fertility and are sometimes transovarially transmitted; they affect the whitefly transcriptome, activating the expression of genes related to the whitefly immune response (Luan et al., 2011)

by KAREN-BETH G. SCHOLTHOF, SCOTT ADKINS , HENRYK CZOSNEK , PETER PALUKAITIS,
EMMANUEL JACQUOT , THOMAS HOHN , BARBARA HOHN , KEITH SAUNDERS,
THIERRY CANDRESSE, PAUL AHLQUIST , CYNTHIA HEMENWAY AND GARY D. FOSTER

control plant virus with Lin chemical Lentinan

TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS

TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS (TSWV)
The first description of the ‘spotted wilt’ disease of tomato occurred in 1915 in Australia (Brittlebank, 1915). The disease was later shown to be transmitted by thrips (Pittman, 1927) and caused by a virus, which was named Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (Samuel et al., 1930). Although the virus was soon reported in many other countries, the more recent worldwide dispersal of Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), the major vector of TSWV, led to the re-emergence of TSWV as a major agricultural pest in the 1980s with worldwide losses estimated to be in excess of US$1 billion annually by 1994 (Goldbach and Peters, 1994).

The continuing economic importance of TSWV is a result of: (i) its worldwide distribution and wide host range (>800 plant species), including tomato, pepper, lettuce, peanut and chrysanthemum; (ii) the significant crop losses resulting from infection; and (iii) the difficulty in managing the thrip vectors, and hence the virus (reviewed in Adkins, 2000; Pappu et al., 2009). TSWV causes variable symptoms, including necrotic/chlorotic rings and flecking on leaves, stems and fruits, with early infections leading to one-sided growth, drooping leaves reminiscent of vascular wilt, stunting or death . Later infections produce unmarketable fruit with striking chlorotic/necrotic ringspots that often appear only when the fruit reaches full colour (reviewed in Chiemsombat and Adkins, 2006). Novel integrated management strategies have been developed for TSWV because the complex vector–virus relationship and the rapidity of transmission limit the effectiveness of insecticides (reviewed in Funderburk, 2009).

by KAREN-BETH G. SCHOLTHOF, SCOTT ADKINS , HENRYK CZOSNEK , PETER PALUKAITIS,
EMMANUEL JACQUOT , THOMAS HOHN , BARBARA HOHN , KEITH SAUNDERS,
THIERRY CANDRESSE, PAUL AHLQUIST , CYNTHIA HEMENWAY AND GARY D. FOSTER

control plant virus with Lin chemical Lentinan

How to control virus disease in plants effectively?

In the prevention and control of virus diseases,

1.choose the right product for control virus disease.

2.we should pay attention to killing insects, such as aphids and other small insects that transmit virus diseases.

3.combining fertilizers to improve plant immunity.

Lentinan from Lin Chemical a product for controlling virus disease containing nutrients. Which helps you control virus in plant effectively.

Aphids are the most common vector of plant viruses

A majority of plant viruses are dependent on vectors for their transmission and survival. Insects, mites, nematodes and protists all mediate the transmission of plant viruses. Insects are the most common of the vectors and, among these, aphids account for the transmission of 50% of the insect-vectored viruses (Brunt et al., 1996Nault, 1997).

Aphids are exquisitely designed for their roles as vector. Piercing–sucking mouthparts facilitate the delivery of virions into plant cells without causing irrevocable damage. With the option of asexual reproduction, aphid populations can increase at extraordinarily high rates, thereby potentiating disease epidemics and furthering the short- and long-distance spread of viruses.

Additionally, aphids are globally distributed and there are more than 200 vector species identified, a number that is most likely a gross underestimate (Brunt et al., 1996Eastop, 1983Hull, 2002Nault, 1997).

Top 10 plant viruses

Top 10 plant viruses. The table represents the ranked list of plant viruses voted for by plant virologists associated with Molecular Plant Pathology.

RankVirusAuthor of virus description
1Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)Karen-Beth G. Scholthof
2Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)Scott Adkins
3Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)Henryk Czosnek
4Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)Peter Palukaitis
5Potato virus Y (PVY)Emmanuel Jacquot
6Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV)Thomas Hohn and Barbara Hohn
7African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV)Keith Saunders
8Plum pox virus (PPV)Thierry Candresse
9Brome mosaic virus (BMV)Paul Ahlquist
10Potato virus X (PVX)Cynthia Hemenway
by KAREN-BETH G. SCHOLTHOF,SCOTT ADKINS,HENRYK CZOSNEK,PETER PALUKAITIS,EMMANUEL JACQUOT,THOMAS HOHN,BARBARA HOHN,KEITH SAUNDERS,THIERRY CANDRESSE,PAUL AHLQUIST,CYNTHIA HEMENWAY,GARY D. FOSTER…

The effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on blueberry crown gall prevention and yield in the field

The effect of Bacillus amyloliquefacien on blueberry crown gall prevention and yield in the field

TreatmentFruition
rate/%
100 grain
weight/g
New tumor
increase/%
Disease indexEffect Control/%
Acetylcin 80%
1000times dilution
84.23a210.4b34.44b28.89±3.42b33.33
Bacillus amyloliquefacien 1
×10^9cfu/mL
86.77a245.6a22.22b18.89±2.89c56.40
CK75.12b201.3b72.22a43.33±5.78a

Check more for Lin Chemical Bacillus amyloliquefacien

Applications of γ-PGA in agriculture

Application of γ-PGA in seed dressing application:

For wheat, corn, rice and other field crops, γ-PGA can be used as a seed dressing agent, generally diluted 5-10 times, mixed with seeds and sown, which can improve the germination rate and survival rate of seeds.

For the economical effect of fruits and vegetables, it can be used as a nutrient solution for seedlings, which can be applied on roots or sprayed on seedbeds or seedling trays, which can promote the growth and development of seedling roots, improve the resistance of seedlings, and ensure that the seedlings grow robustly.