The efficacy and application of Trichoderma harzianum

Trichoderma harzianum has strong resistance to plant pathogenic microorganisms. After colonization, Trichoderma harzianum can absorb the surplus nutrients in the soil that are not used by the root system.

Trichoderma harzianum has a strong competitiveness to compete for survival resources with diseases, can quickly produce a large number of spores, and has strong fecundity capacity. This type of fungus can produce a large number of enzymes and secondary metabolites that can inhibit plant pathogens.

The chitinase and other substances secreted by Trichoderma harzianum can degrade the cell walls of fungal diseases in soil, allowing the diseases to be preyed on by other soil microorganisms.

In addition, Trichoderma harzianum also has a hyperparasitic effect, which can penetrate the hyphae of pathogenic fungi, absorb nutrients, and kill them. After colonization in the rhizosphere of plants, Trichoderma harzianum forms a physical barrier for the root system, preventing the pathogen from invading the plant.

Brazil biopesticide Registration

The Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) announced the registration of 22 formulated agri-input products in Act No. 5 published in the Official Gazette of the Union in February. Eight were products with low environmental impact, including those based on biological materials that are harmless to humans and other animals.

Six biological products are based on Beauveria bassianaBacillus licheniformisBacillus subtilisMetarhizium anisopliaeTrichoderma harzianumTrichoderma viride and Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) which is specific to fall armyworm.

From Agropages

Classes of surfactants

Surfactants are classified by how they split apart into charged atoms or molecules, called ions.

Anionic surfactants have a negative (-) charge. They are most often used with contact pesticides, which control the pest by direct contact instead of being absorbed into it systemically.

Cationic surfactants have a positive (+) charge. Do not use them as stand-alone surfactants often, they are phytotoxic.

Nonionic surfactants have no electrical charge. They are often used with systemic products to help pesticides to penetrate plant cuticles. They are compatible with most pesticide products. A pesticide can behave very differently in the presence of an anionic, cationic, or nonionic surfactant. For this reason, you must follow label directions when choosing one of these additives. Selecting the wrong surfactant can reduce efficacy and damage treated plants or surfaces.

The terms used with pesticide additives can be confusing. People sometimes use the words adjuvant and surfactant interchangeably. However, an adjuvant is ANY substance added to modify properties of a pesticide formulation or finished spray. A surfactant is a specific kind of adjuvant one that affects the interaction of a spray droplet and a treated surface. All surfactants are adjuvants but not all adjuvants are surfactants. For example, drift control additives and safeners are not surfactants.

Choosing an Adjuvant

-Read and follow the label. Is an adjuvant recommended? If so, what type? Do not make substitutions. Some product labels may recommend an adjuvant for one type of use or site but prohibit any kind of adjuvant for another labeled use or site. Suppose, for example, that a certain product is formulated with a wetting agent. If you add another wetting agent when you mix and load a foliar-applied spray, the product may not give better spreading and coverage. Instead, the extra adjuvant may increase runoff, reduce deposition, decrease efficacy and even damage the target plant.

-Use only those adjuvants manufactured for agricultural or horticultural uses. Do not use industrial products or household detergents in pesticide spray mixes.

-No adjuvant is a substitute for good application practices.

-Be skeptical of adjuvant claims such as “improves root uptake” or “keeps spray equipment clean” unless a reliable source can provide research-based evidence to support them. Only use adjuvant products that have been tested and found effective for your intended use.

-Test spray mixes with adjuvants on a small area before proceeding with full-scale use.


Plant-Incorporated-Protectants (PIPs) are pesticidal substances that plants produce from genetic material that has been added to the plant. For example, scientists can take the gene for the Bt pesticidal protein and introduce the gene into the plant’s own genetic material. Then the plant, instead of the Bt bacterium, manufactures the substance that destroys the pest. The protein and its genetic material, but not the plant itself, are regulated by EPA.

Microbial pesticides

Microbial pesticides consist of a microorganism (e.g., a bacterium, fungus, virus or protozoan) as the active ingredient. Microbial pesticides can control many different kinds of pests, although each separate active ingredient is relatively specific for its target pest[s]. For example, there are fungi that control certain weeds and other fungi that kill specific insects.

The most widely used microbial pesticides are subspecies and strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt. Each strain of this bacterium produces a different mix of proteins and specifically kills one or a few related species of insect larvae. While some Bt ingredients control moth larvae found on plants, other Bt ingredients are specific for larvae of flies and mosquitoes. The target insect species are determined by whether the particular Bt produces a protein that can bind to a larval gut receptor, thereby causing the insect larvae to starve.

Biochemical pesticides

Biochemical pesticides are naturally occurring substances that control pests by non-toxic mechanisms. Conventional pesticides, by contrast, are generally synthetic materials that directly kill or inactivate the pest. Biochemical pesticides include substances that interfere with mating, such as insect sex pheromones, as well as various scented plant extracts that attract insect pests to traps. Because it is sometimes difficult to determine whether a substance meets the criteria for classification as a biochemical pesticide, EPA has established a special committee to make such decisions.


  1. Biopesticides are usually inherently less toxic than conventional pesticides.
  2. Biopesticides generally affect only the target pest and closely related organisms, in contrast to broad spectrum, conventional pesticides that may affect organisms as different as birds, insects and mammals.
  3. Biopesticides often are effective in very small quantities and often decompose quickly, resulting in lower exposures and largely avoiding the pollution problems caused by conventional pesticides.
  4. When used as a component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, biopesticides can greatly reduce the use of conventional pesticides, while crop yields remain high.