Field effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and pheromone traps against Phthorimaea absoluta on tomato in tanzania.

Phthorimaea absoluta is an invasive pest and a major threat to tomato production in sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. Although chemical pesticides are commercially available and used locally, mis- and overuse can cause detrimental effects on human and environmental health, and can lead to emergence of resistance among populations of P. absoluta within a short period, increasing production costs among smallholder farmers in Tanzania.

The effectiveness of alternative options, such as the use of biological control agents and pheromone traps, has not yet been studied in the field in sub-Saharan Africa.

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a commercially available biopesticide based on Metarhizium anisopliae and pheromone traps for managing P. absoluta in field conditions in Tanzania during the dry and wet season, and compared effectiveness with chemical pesticides (a combination of chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinetram and flubendiamide) and untreated plants as a positive and negative control, respectively. The two field experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications per treatment.

Two weeks after transplanting, 20 plants were randomly selected from each plot, with the number of fully expanded leaves per plant and mines per plant counted at 7-day intervals until harvest. At harvest, the number and weight of damaged and marketable fruits were recorded, and yield and marketable yield per plot calculated.

The number of leaves per plant (an indicator of P. absoluta infestation) was higher in the wet season than in the dry season. In the wet season, Metarhizium anisopliae-treated plants contained more leaves than plants in control or pheromone-treated plots. The number of P. absoluta mines per plant was higher in the dry season than in the wet season.

In the dry season, the number of mines per plant was higher in control plots than in plots of other treatments.

However, total yield and marketable yield were higher during the dry season than during the wet season. During both seasons, damage was highest and yield lowest in control plots.

During the dry season, total yield and marketable yield did not differ significantly between pesticide-treated and Metarhizium anisopliae-treated plots.

Biological control using Metarhizium anisopliae could be integrated in field management of P. absoluta in tomato in the highlands of Tanzania as well as in other regions of this country and throughout Africa.
By Zekeya, N.; Dubois, T.; Smith, J.; Ramasamy, S.

Lin-MA: Metarhizium anisopliae

Microbial control of thrips

Polyphagous thrips are among the most important economically pests that cause serious damage in various ornamental and vegetable crops throughout the world.

Because of their small size and cryptic habits, a number of thrips species are easy to invade into new areas. For a long period, thrips control has mainly relied on frequent use of insecticides, which lead to a series of ecological problems.

Although a number of alternative management tactics have been developed in many cropping systems, many invasive thrips continue to spread internationally and display vast damage potential. Microbial control of thrips includes the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium lecanii. The strains of fungal pathogens that were screened and proven to be effective for control of thrips should be developed worldwide and available for growers.

Studies on METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

Soil applications of METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE could reduce F. occidentalis population significantly and prevent major damage to their host plants (Skinner et al., 2012).

The results obtained from Maniania et al. (2003) indicated that the potential of using M. anisopliae for the control of T. tabaci while protecting biodiversity in the onion agroecosystem in Kenya.

Dura et al. (2012) found that METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE was as effective as the chemical insecticides against F. occidentalis on pepper plant, while Ansari et al. (2007) considered METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE was more efficacious than chemical insecticides (imidacloprid and fipronil) for control pupae of F. occidentalis after treated with growing media, which offers much promise for control of thrips as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) program.

Lin-MA(METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE)

Thrips

Thrips are minute, slender-bodied insects less than 1/16 inch to about 3/16 inch in length.

With magnification, you can identify the adults that range in color from yellow to black and have four long, narrow, fringed wings.

The young nymphs are smaller, wingless, and range in color from yellow to white.

Many thrips are plant feeders attacking flowers, leaves, fruit, twigs, or buds.

Biological pesticide control program:Control Spodoptera frugiperda with an insecticidal fungi-metarhizium anisopliae

Biological pesticide control program

Control fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda ) with an insecticidal fungi-metarhizium anisopliae

Whole biological:

  • Metarhizium anisopliae OD 600ml/ha + Bt 750g/ha
  • Metarhizium anisopliae OD 300ml/ha + 0.6% Matrine SL 900ml/ha
  • Metarhizium anisopliae OD 300ml/ha + 1.5% Pyrethrins WE 900ml/ha

Combination of biological and chemical:

  • Metarhizium anisopliae OD 300ml/ha + 35% Chlorantraniliprole 60g/ha
  • Metarhizium anisopliae OD 300ml/ha + 5% Emamectin benzoate 105g/ha

Control Tea looper with Metarhizium anisopliae in Tea

Metarhizium anisopliae OD 600ml/ha+ 0.6% matrine SL 1500ml/ha

Control effect: Tea Looper broke out in tea gardens when the product was applied, and most of them were mature larvae, and the tea gardens suffered heavy damage. 7-10d after the application the control effect reaches 85%

This method can effectively prevent the spread of tea looper damage and ensure that there is tea available.

Tea looper infected by Metarhizium anisoplia

Biological pesticide control program:Control Jumping beetle with an insecticidal fungi-metarhizium anisopliae

Biological pesticide control program

Control Jumping beetle with an insecticidal fungi-metarhizium anisopliae

Sowing period

Whole biological:

  • Metarhizium anisopliae granules 75kg + Beauveria bassiana granules 75kg/ha. After the granules are mixed with soil and spread on the ridge surface, the soil is properly raked, and finally the whole field is watered.

‘Hybrid’ of biological and chemical:

  • Metarhizium anisopliae granules 75kg/ha + 1% Bifenthrin+clothianidin granules 45kg/ha
  • Metarhizium anisopliae granules 75kg/ha + 0.5% clothianidin granules 45kg/ha

The seedling stage

Whole biological:

  • Metarhizium anisopliae OD 600ml/ha + Beauveria bassiana OD 600ml/ha
  • Metarhizium anisopliae OD 600ml/ha+32000IU/mg Bacillus thuringiensis WP 750g/ha

Combination of biological and chemical:

  • Metarhizium anisopliaeOD 300ml/ha + 15% pyridaben EC 600ml/ha
  • Metarhizium anisopliae OD 300ml/Ha + 20% acetamiprid SP 450g/ha
  • Metarhizium anisopliae OD 300ml/ha + 22% Thiamethoxam+ Lambda-cyhalotrin CS 300ml/ha

Note: When artificially or mechanically spraying, add 450 liters of water per ha, and spray evenly, focusing on young leaves.