What is IPM

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an effective and environmentally sensitive approach to pest management that relies on a combination of common-sense practices. IPM programs use current, comprehensive information on the life cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment.

Combination of insecticidal fungi with Bt

Bt produces endotoxin (that is, parasporal crystals), which paralyzes the intestinal tract and destroys the intima, mainly due to stomach toxicity.

Fungal insecticides invade the body of insects through the body wall, deprive the host of nutrients and secrete toxins and cause the insects’ death.

Bt combined with Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae has a significant synergistic effect on Musca domestica, Helicoverpa armigera and Earias vittella.

It indicated that the stomach toxicity of Bt and the contact killing effect of insecticidal fungi could be synergistic.


Beauveria bassiana

Metarhizium anisopliae

Bacillus thuringien

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is currently the largest and most widely used biopesticide. Its main active ingredient is one or several insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs), also known as delta-endotoxin, which are harmful to Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera, etc. Insects, as well as arthropods such as animal and plant nematodes and acarids, have specific poisoning activities, and are safe for non-target organisms.

Therefore, Bacillus thuringiensis have the advantages of specificity, high efficiency, and safety to humans and animals.

At present, there are more than 100 kinds of commercial preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis , and it is the most widely used, the largest application volume and the best microbial insecticide in the world, so it has attracted much attention.

Paecilomyces lilacinus can parasitize on nematode eggs

Paecilomyces lilacinus can parasitize on nematode eggs, Paecilomyces lilacinus can inhibit the chemotaxis of soybean 2 instar nematodes to soybean roots, and its fermentation broth has a good inhibitory effect on soybean 2 instar nematodes effect.

Paecilomyces lilacinus can secrete chitinase and serine protease, thereby degrading the chitin and protein components of the nematode epidermis, which is conducive to invading and destroying cell components.

At the same time, the study found that chitinase is helpful for the hatching of root-knot nematode eggs, the higher the concentration, the higher the hatching rate, and it has a toxic and killing effect on root-knot nematode larvae; it can also be endogenous in plants and produce effectors to other The fungi produce antagonistic effects; they can also colonize the rhizosphere of plants, produce secondary metabolites, and have inhibitory effects on fungi and nematodes.

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Paecilomyces lilacinus

How Paecilomyces lilacinus works?

The inhibitory mechanism of Paecilomyces lilacinus on root-knot nematodes is that after Paecilomyces lilacinus contacts with nematocyst oocysts, in the viscous matrix, the hyphae of the biocontrol bacteria surround the whole egg, and the ends of the hyphae become thicker.

Metabolites and the activity of fungal chitinases rupture the eggshell surface, which is subsequently invaded by fungi and replaced. It can also secrete toxins to kill nematodes.

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Paecilomyces lilacinus

Paecilomyces lilacinus

Paecilomyces lilacinus is currently mainly used as a biological control product for nematodes. Not only against root-knot nematodes, Paecilomyces lilacinus is effective against many insects and fungi.

It has a good control effect on plant parasitic nematodes, aphids, red spiders, greenhouse whiteflies and leaf-cutting ants. In addition, Paecilomyces lilacinus has inhibitory effects on a variety of phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses.

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Paecilomyces lilacinus

Integrated pest management (IPM)

Food security has been a concern for many years, and one of the principal causes of loss of food has been preharvest destruction by pathogens and pests. Successful control of these has been possible with the use of chemicals; however, it is now recognized that chemical residues left behind on the crop may be harmful to the consumer.

This provided an impetus to search for alternative means of controlling pathogens and pests, especially methods relying on biological agents or their products.

Ecosystems are in a state of dynamic equilibrium, and nature itself offers solutions in the form of a set of organisms devouring or damaging others for their own survival.

The various biological entities that are used either alone or in combination with others, and the processes by which these are done, collectively fall within integrated pest management (IPM).

IPM strategies are now being strongly advocated to combat plant disease and pest attack.


Baculoviruses, a diverse group of arthropod-specific viruses, have long been employed for the biological control of many economically significant insect pests on agricultural and forest crops all over the world.

They are primarily pathogens of caterpillars and about 90 per cent are reported to cause diseases in members belonging to the order Lepidoptera. Baculoviruses have been attractive biological control agents because of their safety to vertebrates, other non-target fauna and high pathogenicity with host death being most likely outcome of an infection.

They have an ability to persist outside the host insect by producing virions sequestered within the protein matrix and potential to trigger epizootics in insect population, thus being important factor in regulating the size of host insect population.

Baculoviruses are relatively quick acting and lethal among the various insect pathogens infecting globally significant pest species. 

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H. armigera and S. exigua NPVs

Nuclear polyhedrosis viruses

Two strains of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses isolated from important insect pests in Thailand, H. armigera and S. exigua, were studied and results suggest that they were two different viruses.

These findings were supported by the different patterns of arrangement of virions in the polyhedra, serological studies and data of bioassays of viruses against homologus and heterologous species of hosts.

The virus isolated demonstrated a selective species specific reaction. Both viruses isolated were found to effectively kill all stages of homologous larval species with LC50 values ranging from 6.72 to 1255.06 PIBs/mm2 for H. armigera NPV and 7.40 to 476.01 PIBs/mm2 for S. exigua NPV.

Each of the viruses displayed a similar set of symptoms caused by a typical characteristic of NPV. There was a slight increase in incubation period with the increase of larval age for both virus isolates against homologous host species.

It suggests that it is possible to use these two viruses isolated to control H. armigera and S. exigua larvae in the field.

by aovaluk Hungspruke; Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Faculty of Graduate Studies [Corporate Author]

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H. armigera and S. exigua NPVs