TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS (TSWV)
The first description of the ‘spotted wilt’ disease of tomato occurred in 1915 in Australia (Brittlebank, 1915). The disease was later shown to be transmitted by thrips (Pittman, 1927) and caused by a virus, which was named Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (Samuel et al., 1930). Although the virus was soon reported in many other countries, the more recent worldwide dispersal of Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), the major vector of TSWV, led to the re-emergence of TSWV as a major agricultural pest in the 1980s with worldwide losses estimated to be in excess of US$1 billion annually by 1994 (Goldbach and Peters, 1994).
The continuing economic importance of TSWV is a result of: (i) its worldwide distribution and wide host range (>800 plant species), including tomato, pepper, lettuce, peanut and chrysanthemum; (ii) the significant crop losses resulting from infection; and (iii) the difficulty in managing the thrip vectors, and hence the virus (reviewed in Adkins, 2000; Pappu et al., 2009). TSWV causes variable symptoms, including necrotic/chlorotic rings and flecking on leaves, stems and fruits, with early infections leading to one-sided growth, drooping leaves reminiscent of vascular wilt, stunting or death . Later infections produce unmarketable fruit with striking chlorotic/necrotic ringspots that often appear only when the fruit reaches full colour (reviewed in Chiemsombat and Adkins, 2006). Novel integrated management strategies have been developed for TSWV because the complex vector–virus relationship and the rapidity of transmission limit the effectiveness of insecticides (reviewed in Funderburk, 2009).
by KAREN-BETH G. SCHOLTHOF, SCOTT ADKINS , HENRYK CZOSNEK , PETER PALUKAITIS,
EMMANUEL JACQUOT , THOMAS HOHN , BARBARA HOHN , KEITH SAUNDERS,
THIERRY CANDRESSE, PAUL AHLQUIST , CYNTHIA HEMENWAY AND GARY D. FOSTER
control plant virus with Lin chemical Lentinan