Roots serve a vital role (among other functions) in extracting water from the soil, transporting it to the shoot and sustaining transpiration. To fulfill this function, roots have a complex anatomical structure consisting of different cell layers with varying hydraulic conductivities. This composite structure offers different pathways for radial flow of water from the root surface towards xylem vessels: (i) the apoplastic pathway through the intercellular space and the cell wall; (ii) the symplastic pathway via plasmodesmata channels extending across neighboring cells; and (iii) the transcellular pathway which involves crossing membranes of neighboring cells. Pathways (ii and iii) are commonly referred to as the cell-to-cell pathway.
Roots are capable of varying the permeability of their cells and tissues to fulfill multi-facet functions, such as (i) transport of water and nutrients towards the xylem vessels; (ii) protection against desiccation in drying soils; and (iii) avoidance of leakage of nutrients and photosynthesized compounds into the soil.
Products helps plants get better and stronger roots: