Roots serve a vital role (among other functions) in extracting water from the soil, transporting it to the shoot and sustaining transpiration. To fulfill this function, roots have a complex anatomical structure consisting of different cell layers with varying hydraulic conductivities. This composite structure offers different pathways for radial flow of water from the root surface towards xylem vessels: (i) the apoplastic pathway through the intercellular space and the cell wall; (ii) the symplastic pathway via plasmodesmata channels extending across neighboring cells; and (iii) the transcellular pathway which involves crossing membranes of neighboring cells. Pathways (ii and iii) are commonly referred to as the cell-to-cell pathway.
Roots are capable of varying the permeability of their cells and tissues to fulfill multi-facet functions, such as (i) transport of water and nutrients towards the xylem vessels; (ii) protection against desiccation in drying soils; and (iii) avoidance of leakage of nutrients and photosynthesized compounds into the soil.
Products helps plants get better and stronger roots:
γ-PGA itself has a natural growth-promoting effect on plant roots, stimulating the growth of root hairs and new roots, enhancing the ability of absorbing nutrients, and decreasing damage to plant roots caused by drought, sputum, cold and other stresses.
γ-PGA is able to chelate toxic metal ions in soil such as lead, copper, cadmium, chromium, aluminum, and arsenic, preventing the roots of the crop from absorbing these toxins. Therefore, it blocks the introduction of toxic metals into the human food chain.
The anion surfactant character of γ-PGA gives it strong binding affinity for cation nutrient molecules. The absorption of nutrient molecules by γ-PGA is 100 fold as strong as soil alone, which thus decreases the loss of nutrients from the soil.
It can enrich nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium as well as calcium, magnesium, manganese and zinc in soil, thereby satisfying the different requirements of individual crops. After application of γ-PGA , the effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizer can be increased by 50-60%, phosphorous more than 5%, and potassium 15-20%. It saves about 20% in fertilizer requirement per acre and is able to provide sufficient nutrients for crops.
The absorption and maintenance properties of γ-PGA allow it to store excess nutrients in the soil until they are needed.
The stored nutrients can be released gradually over time to satisfy the needs of crops during their growth.
The high absorbance of γ-PGA increases the availability of organics in the soil, balances the pH value of the soil thus preventing soil acidity caused by long-term use of chemical fertilizers as well as absorption and fungal problems. By using γ-PGA , the organic content of the soil is improved. Enhancement of the organic components in soil greatly improves the water and nutrient maintenance of the soil, which benefits crop yields.
γ-PGA can be used as a fertilizer by dilution of its microbial fermentation solutions, which contain free PGA, amino acids, sugars as well as minerals, and can be safely applied directly to crops.
γ-PGA has high water absorbability, which can increase the water content of soil at depths between 0 and 20cm by 1.5-2.8%, and at soil depths between 20 and 40 cm by 1-1.5%, thus giving higher resistance to drought.
In addition, γ-PGA biodegrades naturally to amino acids, which is non-toxic to soil and environment. Research shows that γ-PGA as a compound fertilizer is more profitable than other similar products and the market demand is also very large.
γ-PGA (Gamma-poly-glutamic acid) is a natural occurring, multi-functional, and biodegradable biopolymer. It is produced through fermentation by Bacillus subtilis using glutamic acid.
PGA is consists of glutamic acid monomers crosslinked between α-amino and γ-carboxyl groups, and the molecular weight of PGA is usually between 100~1000 kDa.
It is water-soluble, edible and non-toxic towards human, and is environment friendly. It has broad applications in the fields of medicine, food, cosmetics, and water treatment.